What Does Genomics Mean?

Written by Umar Farouk Kabir

Umar Farouk is a full-time writer on Business and finance. In his free time, he plays competitive chess. He is also an aspiring pilot.

April 12, 2022

Genomics can be defined as a field of biotechnology involved with using genetics and molecular biology techniques for the genetic mapping and DNA sequencing of groups of genes or entire genomes of chosen species, storing the results in databases, and putting the data to use.

The biological sciences have been altered by genomics. The capacity to establish an organism’s whole genetic composition has revolutionized the way research is done and the questions that can be asked of it, from epidemiology and medicine to evolution and forensics.

Genomic investigations reveal a patient’s genetic composition, including genetic differences and mutations. Instead of treating patients with a one-size-fits-all strategy, all of this data may be utilized to create a treatment plan tailored to their unique genetic makeup.

So you know how genomics is defined, the next question is “how does genomics work?” For that, you will need to understand some basic things about genomics starting from knowing what a genome is, and the types of genomics there are. In this article, I will explain what a genome is, how genomics works, and its types.

What is a Genome?

Your genome is the operating handbook for your body; comprising all of the instructions that guided you from a single cell to the person you are now. It directs your growth, assists your organs in their functions, and self-repairs when injured. It’s also unique to you. The more you understand your genome and how it works, the more you’ll be able to comprehend your own health and make educated decisions about your health.

Simply put, the term “genome” refers to your entire DNA. Every living creature, from flowers to cats, has its unique genome. Each genome includes the instructions for constructing and maintaining a living creature.

Next up, we look at the types of genomics, then we see how does genomics works.

Types of Genomics

1. Structural Genomics

The goal of this type of genomics is to figure out the structure of every protein encoded by the genome. The study of the three-dimensional structure of every protein encoded by genes is known as structural genomics. It entails the genetic and physical mapping of the whole genome, as well as its sequencing.

2. Functional Genomics

Functional genomics is a type of genomics that studies the roles and interactions of genes. The large amounts of data generated by genomic and transcriptome research are used in functional genomics.

3. Comparative Genomics

Comparative genomics is a type of genomics that compares the genetic characteristics of various animals. The DNA sequence, genes, gene order, regulatory sequences, and other genomic structural markers are examples of genomic characteristics.

4. Mutation Genomics

In this type of genomics, the genome is studied in terms of mutations in a person’s DNA or genome.

The Difference between Genetics and Genomics

So, how does genomics work, and what is the difference between genetics and genomics?

The terms have a similar sound and are frequently used interchangeably. However, there are some significant differences between genetics and genomics.

Genetics is the study of heredity, or how living creatures’ features are passed down from generation to generation via DNA, the material that makes up genes, the basic unit of heredity. Many of the principles of heredity were discovered by Augustinian friar and scientist Gregor Mendel’s research of pea plants in the mid 1800s.

Genetics is the study of a small number of genes, or sections of genes, that perform a specific function. In biomedical research, scientists aim to figure out how genes influence body development, illness, and therapeutic response.

Genomics, on the other hand, is the study of an organism’s whole genome, or set of genes. Genomic researchers examine huge volumes of DNA-sequence data using high-performance computer and math approaches known as bioinformatics to uncover variants that impact health, sickness, or treatment response. In humans, this entails combing through around 3 billion pieces of DNA and 23,000 genes.

Genomics is a far younger science than genetics, having just emerged in the last few decades as a result of technological advancements in DNA sequencing and computational biology.

The Application of Genomics

In as much as genomics is a new field, it is already being applied in a lot of fields in biology. Here, we will look at some of the prominent roles genomics play in the field of biology.

1. Pharmacogenomics/Toxicogenomics

Pharmacogenomics, also known as toxicogenomics, is the study of pharmacological efficacy and safety using information from a person’s genome sequence. Before including humans in investigations, genomic reactions to medications can be examined using experimental animals (such as laboratory rats or mice) or living cells in the lab. Changes in gene expression might reveal information about the medication’s transcription profile in the presence of the drug, which could be utilized as an early warning sign of possible toxicity.

2. Genomics and Agriculture

Genomics has the potential to minimize the number of trials and failures in scientific research, potentially improving the quality and quantity of agricultural yields in agriculture. Linking features to genes or gene signatures aids crop breeding in the development of hybrids with the best characteristics. Scientists utilize genetic data to find desired features, which they subsequently transfer to another organism. Scientists are learning how genomics may increase agriculture produce quality and quantity.

3. Mitochondrial Genomics

Conclusion

The availability of whole DNA sequences for entire species enabled genomics, which was made feasible by both Fred Sanger’s pioneering work and more current next-generation sequencing technologies.

Now that you have some solid grasp of what genomics is and how it works, you can actually begin to imagine the number of possibilities scientists are drooling over. The world is changing, on a cellular level too!

Kindly let us know what your thoughts are on this new and exciting field, are you as excited as we are? Comment down below

 

FAQs

What are the issues about genomics?

Concerns about secrecy, stigmatization, and abuse of genetic information are at the top of the list, especially the possibility of creating a hereditary underclass that would be refused medical insurance as a result of genetic testing and screening.

How does genomics work?

For DNA-based forensic analysis, genomics is building more reliable methodologies. The study of individual and community microorganisms is progressing thanks to genomics. Genomics allows you to obtain information about your genome from the comfort of your own home. Genomics aids in the understanding of evolution and the preservation of biological ecosystems.

Is Genomics Important?

The study of genes, known as genomics, is making it possible to anticipate, diagnose, and treat diseases with greater precision and personalization than ever before. The human genome is made up of billions of base pairs of DNA that are individually organized to give us our basic anatomy and individual features like height and hair color.

Must Read: The Future of Medicine; Telehealth

0 0 votes
Article Rating
Subscribe
Notify of
guest
0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

You May Also Like…

What Is E-Learning?

What Is E-Learning?

Anyone who has used eLearning will undoubtedly tell you how effective and handy it is. Both learners and companies benefit from eLearning in today's "always-on" era. But what is...

Subscribe to Weekly Northy Letter

You have Successfully Subscribed!

Subscribe To Our Magazine

Subscribe To Our Magazine

Join our mailing list to receive the latest news and updates from our Editorial Team.

You have Successfully Subscribed!

Pin It on Pinterest

Shares